An Insider Blog from Leaders on EMC & Radar Engineering
Recently, the FCC and Industry Canada have agreed on ten interim spectrum sharing arrangements covering wireless operations along the U.S.-Canada border. According to an FCC news release, the spectrum sharing arrangements are expected to improve overall frequency coordination, facilitate the deployment of mobile broadband, improve public safety communications, and prevent interference problems along the shared border area of the two countries.
Recently, the R&TTE Compliance Association issued TGN 01, Version May 2013 which is a Technical Guidance Note on the R&TTED compliance requirements for a Radio Module and the Final Product that integrates a Radio Module. TGN01 has been issued in order provide better clarity and constructed so a harmonized approach is used by all Notified Bodies regarding the understanding, assessment, documentation and labeling of the following three scenarios:
- A Radio Module not placed on the market but integrated in a product by a (number of) different manufacturer(s) who places the final product on the market.
- An assessed Radio Module placed on the market and installed in a product by the end user.
- An assessed Radio Module placed on the market and integrated in a product by a different manufacturer who places the final product on the market.
Previously, in October 2012, the Bolivia's "Ley 164" was approved and requires that all radio products must have Type Approval before entering the country. Bolivia's Telecommunications Authority, ATT (Autoridad de Regulación y Fiscalización de Telecomunicaciones y Transportes), was then granted a period of 6 months to establish these Type Approval regulations and procedures. Prior to Ley 164, Type Approval was voluntary only.
Recently however, ATT has advised that their new Type Approval scheme is not yet in place. Final drafts of the regulations and requirements are expected to be reviewed for official approval around the end of May 2013.
During this transition period, ATT is allowing manufacturers the option of obtaining a Temporary Approval. ATT has advised this process is voluntary only and does not negate the need to reapply for Type Approval once the official regulations and procedures are in place.
On April 13, 2013, Industry Canada published Notice No. SMSE-008-13, alerting that the following Radio Standards Specification (RSS) came into effect immediately:
Radio Standards Specification RSS 142, Issue 5: Narrowband Multipoint Communication Systems in the Band 1429.5 1432 MHz, which sets out the certification requirements for radio transmitters and receivers of Narrowband Multipoint Communication Systems (N-MCS), including utility telemetry systems, in the band 1429.5-1432MHz.
The above mentioned document was updated to reflect Industry Canada's recent decision to rescind the operation of N-MCS equipment in the frequency band 1493.5-1496.5MHz.
Malaysia's Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) has recently advised that Modular Approval will no longer be accepted for modules installed in Tablet computers. Each Tablet computer will need to be approved in full, regardless of whether it houses approved modules. However, there is no official guidance available yet nor an official date of when the new rule was implemented and will be enforced.
It should be noted that this change does not affect Notebook computers. Notebook computers may still use the 'modular approval + add host' scheme, wherein the RF radios are approved as modules and then each host device is listed on the approval for the modules.
On May 3, 2013, we were advised by our local agent in Brazil that ANATEL halted the review and issuance of Type Approval certificates on May 2, 2013. We were informed that ANATEL's Director of Certification had stepped down from his position and the certification team is now undergoing an immediate reorganization. The effect of this reorganization immediately halts all ANATEL Type Approval application reviews as well as the issuance of ANATEL Type Approval certificates. However, testing and OCD review processes continue as normal. We anticipate a significate short term disruption and impact to Type Approval certication lead times. We will continue to provide additional updates as we receive them. Link
Although commercial off the shelf (COTS) products are not typically designed for use in military electromagnetic environments (EME), manufacturers are attempting to integrate them into other products for use in military EME. This quickly growing trend has increased for several reasons; the most compelling are cost-savings and miniaturization and modularization of COTS products. While this trend has been a welcome development for manufacturers of military solutions with integrated COTS products, demonstrating their compliance with the stringent DoD military standards is fraught with challenges.
The FAA has the full force of federal law (49 USC 44701) behind it in promoting safe flight of civilian aircraft. Part of the FAA’s safety mission is to make sure aircraft are properly certified as being airworthy and that aircraft systems are protected against adverse electromagnetic effects through proper EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing.
An “adverse effect” is defined as anything that causes equipment to fail, malfunction or provide a misleading reading that endangers flight safety. The FAA approach to the latter is through its regulations on lightning protection, safeguards against high intensity RF fields, and, last but not least, electromagnetic compatibility testing.
What Factor Does Power Quality Play In Navy Platforms As It Relates To MIL-STD-461E & MIL-STD-461F CE101 Testing?Posted on April 17th 2013 by Desmond Fraser
Power regulation on Navy platforms can be severely affected if the quality of power is not regulated. Harmonic currents levels are controlled through MIL-STD-461E and MIL-STD-461F, CE101 conducted emissions limits and test thereof.
The quality of power, technically referred to as power quality, can be quantified as a set of parameter values to include variation in voltage amplitude, transient voltages and currents, service continuity, and harmonic current levels in power distribution system waveforms. Power quality is affected when electronic power supplies, and other non-linear loads in particular, cause distortion in the power distribution system of Navy platforms.
In a typical electrical power AC system source, loads are either linear or non-linear. When the load is linear, the current drawn by the load is sinusoidal, which does not distort the waveform. Conversely, non-linear loads produce non-sinusoidal current waveforms, which create a distortion of the voltage waveform. Non-linear loads produce harmonics, which can cause interference to radios, telephones and other communication devices and navigation instrumentation on the Navy platform. The harmonics can also cause a breakdown in the insulation materials of the platform’s electrical wiring.
In MIL-STD-461E and MIL-STD-461F, CE101 conducted emissions test method, 30 Hz – 10 kHz, why is a current limit specified and not a voltage limit?Posted on April 10th 2013 by Desmond Fraser
To specify MIL-STD-461E and MIL-STD-461F CE101 in voltage conducted emissions limits, variations of power source impedances in test facilities must be controlled. Since imposing this requirement is not practical, it is more reasonable to specify a current conducted emissions limit. Below are other reasons why the limit is specified as current rather than voltage:
In MIL-STD-461F, what is the intent of CE101, conducted emissions, power leads, 30 Hz to 10 kHz, in Department of Defense (DoD) platforms?Posted on April 8th 2013 by Desmond Fraser
CE101 in MIL-STD-461F applies only to Navy submarines, Navy aircraft and Army aircraft. CE101 is not required for Air Force aircraft, Air Force ground, Army ground, or Navy ground platforms.
The intent of CE101 is as follows:
On December 12, 2012, the FCC proposed to make available 100 megahertz of shared spectrum in the 3.5 GHz Band (3550-3650 MHz) using small cell and database technologies. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) broadly reflects the innovative thinking of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), which issued a report this summer recommending spectrum sharing and small cell use in the 3.5 GHz Band. It also builds upon the FCC’s previous work to free up spectrum by promoting spectrum sharing and enabling innovative licensing techniques.