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An Insider Blog from Leaders on EMC & Radar Engineering


Switching-Mode Power Supply Switching-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) are used extensively in many electronic applications. Many manufacturers offer MIL-STD-461 compliant solutions, as well as Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions for military applications. SMPS offer many advantages when compared to Linear Power Supplies. The primary advantage of an SMPS is that it offers power conversion and regulation at 100% efficiency – albeit, given ideal components. All power loss is due to less than ideal components and the power loss in the control circuitry. Other advantages of the SMPS are smaller size and therefore less weight. SMPS have switching frequencies that range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
We have a module that does not include a RF shield, however we meet the standalone requirement for a module with a RF shield. Can we qualify for FCC certification as a standalone module?
 
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

To qualify as a standalone module, the RF (radio frequency) circuitry must be shielded, even if the module meets the limits in a standalone configuration without it. The RF section of the module must be shielded to help prevent RF coupling when the module is installed in a host, so it’s not enough for it to meet only the limits of the standalone configuration.

The shielding design must fully enfold all the RF circuitry, including the top, all sides, and the bottom, which may be a shielding ground plane. The shielding must be made of sheet metal, metal mesh, or a metallic ink-coated material expressly designed as an effective shield. Any holes in the shield must be significantly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation that is being blocked, to effectively approximate an unbroken conducting surface.

The other module circuitry, i.e. flash memory, temperature sensor, input voltage regulators, input data buffering circuits, etc. may not be RF circuitry, and therefore do not need to be shielded. However, the onus is on the grantee to employ sound engineering judgment to reduce/eliminate any possible RF coupling that might affect a host interface.

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech.com

This is a shortened list of the CENELEC standards published or made available during the past month:

  • EN 60153-1:2016 - (9/2/16) - Hollow metallic waveguides - Part 1: General requirements and measuring methods
  • EN 60990:2016 - (9/2/16) - Methods of measurement of touch current and protective conductor current
  • EN 61094-3:2016 - (9/2/16) - Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 3: Primary method for free-field calibration of laboratory standard microphones by the reciprocity technique
  • EN 61094-5:2016 - (9/2/16) - Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones by comparison
  • EN 62625-2:2016 - (9/9/16) - Electronic railway equipment - On board driving data recording system - Part 2: Conformity testing
  • EN 60929:2011/A1:20 - (9/11/16) - AC and/or DC-supplied electronic control gear for tubular fluorescent lamps - Performance requirements
  • EN 50289-4-16:2016 - (9/16/16) - Communication cables - Specifications for test methods - Part 4-16: Environmental test methods - Circuit integrity under fire conditions
  • EN 50290-2-29:2016 - (9/16/16) - Communication cables - Part 2-29: Common design rules and construction - Crosslinked polyethylene insulation compounds: instrumentation, control and field bus cables
  • EN 60384-18:2016 - (9/16/16) - Fixed capacitors for use in electronic equipment - Part 18: Sectional specification - Fixed aluminium electrolytic surface mount capacitors with solid (MnO2) and non-solid electrolyte
  • EN 61340-4-9:2016 - (9/16/16) - Electrostatics - Part 4-9: Standard test methods for specific applications - Garments
  • EN 62591:2016 - (9/16/16) - Industrial communication networks - Wireless communication network and communication profiles - WirelessHART™
  • EN 62822-2:2016 - (9/16/16) - Electric welding equipment - Assessment of restrictions related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) - Part 2: Arc welding equipment
  • CLC/TR 50417:2016 - (9/23/16) - Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Interpretations related to European Standards in the EN 60335 series
  • EN 60669-2-5:2016 - (9/23/16) - Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations - Part 2-5: Particular requirements - Switches and related accessories for use in home and building electronic systems (HBES)
  • EN 61058-1-2:2016 - (9/23/16) - Switches for appliances - Part 1-2: Requirements for electronic switches

See CENELEC for additional information.

This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  • ETSI EN 300 086 V2.1.2 - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment with an internal or external RF connector intended primarily for analogue speech; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 300 113 V2.1.1 - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment intended for the transmission of data (and/or speech) using constant or non-constant envelope modulation and having an antenna connector; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 300 219 V2.1.1 - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment transmitting signals to initiate a specific response in the receiver; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 302 961 V2.1.2 - 2016-08 - Maritime Personal Homing Beacon intended for use on the frequency 121,5 MHz for search and rescue purposes only; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 303 372-1 V1.1.1 - 2016-08 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Satellite broadcast reception equipment; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 1: Outdoor unit receiving in the 10,7 GHz to 12,75 GHz frequency band
  • ETSI EN 302 574-1 V2.1.2 - 2016-09 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Harmonised Standard for Mobile Earth Stations (MES) operating in the 1 980 MHz to 2 010 MHz (earth-to-space) and 2 170 MHz to 2 200 MHz (space-to-earth) frequency bands covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 1: Complementary Ground Component (CGC) for wideband systems
  • ETSI EN 302 574-2 V2.1.2 - 2016-09 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Harmonised Standard for Mobile Earth Stations (MES) operating in the 1 980 MHz to 2 010 MHz (earth-to-space) and 2 170 MHz to 2 200 MHz (space-to-earth) frequency bands covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 2: User Equipment (UE) for wideband systems
  • ETSI TR 103 182 V1.1.1 - 2016-09 - Integrated broadband cable telecommunication networks (CABLE); Characteristics of Evolving Electromagnetic Environment with ECN800 parameters and Cable Network Equipment
  • ETSI EN 300 422-1 V2.1.1 - 2016-09 - Wireless Microphones; Audio PMSE up to 3 GHz; Part 1: Class A Receivers; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 301 842-5 V2.1.1 - 2016-09 - VHF air-ground Digital Link (VDL) Mode 4 radio equipment; Technical characteristics and methods of measurement for ground-based equipment; Part 5: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 300 674-2-1 V2.1.1 - 2016-09 - Transport and Traffic Telematics (TTT); Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) transmission equipment (500 kbit/s / 250 kbit/s) operating in the 5 795 MHz to 5 815 MHz frequency band; Part 2: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Sub-part 1: Road Side Units (RSU)
  • ETSI EN 302 064 V2.1.1 - 2016-09 - Wireless Video Links operating in the 1,3 GHz to 50 GHz frequency band; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 301 841-3 V2.1.1 - 2016-09 - VHF air-ground Digital Link (VDL) Mode 2; Technical characteristics and methods of measurement for ground-based equipment; Part 3: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 301 406 V2.2.2 - 2016-09 - Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  • ETSI EN 303 204 V2.1.2 - 2016-09 - Network Based Short Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 870 MHz to 876 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU

See ETSI website for additional information.

Recently, our lab was asked about the FCC frequency stability requirements for 902 - 928 MHz wireless transmitters.  We advised our client that transmitters that operate within the 902 - 928 MHz band are subject to FCC 47CFR15.249. The wireless transmitter carrier’s 20 dB bandwidth must be within the 902 - 928 MHz frequency band where operation is permitted under all conditions including modulation, frequency sweeping, hopping and stability, the frequency tolerance of the carrier, and over variation in temperature.

The frequency accuracy of your wireless transmitter carrier’s signal must be within ±0.001% of the operating frequency over a temperature variation of −20 degrees to +50 degrees C at normal supply voltage, as well as for variation in the primary supply voltage from 85% to 115% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20 degrees C. If your wireless transmitter is battery operated, it must be tested using a new battery.

 

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech.com

Canada's Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) recently issued a public notice with details on the transition period from Issue 8 to Issue 9 of RSS-210 Licence-Exempt Radio Apparatus: Category I Equipment. Though geared toward the certified bodies (CBs), it is informative to all that seek certification under RSS-210, and is provided below.

This is to inform you the following certification procedure will apply with regards to transition period for RSS-210 issue 9:

  1. If a certificate has been issued to RSS-210 issue 8 before the date of publication of RSS-210 issue 9, nothing needs to be changed and it can be submitted as is to ISED via the Spectraweb application;
  2. If a certificate has not been issued before the date of publication of RSS-210 issue 9, ISED will continue to accept test reports compliant with RSS-210 Issue 8 until February 26, 2017 and in such cases, the CB shall issue certificates showing RSS-210 Issue 8 compliance. After February 26, 2017, CBs shall issue certificates showing RSS-210 Issue 9 compliance and test reports may continue to be in compliance with RSS-210 Issue 8 until August 26, 2017, only if:
    1. it is supplemented with a partial test report covering any missing requirements from RSS-210 Issue 9; or
    2. it includes an attestation signed by the applicant, lab or CB indicating that the report covers all requirements in RSS-210 Issue 9.
  3. After August 26, 2017, all test reports must be compliant with RSS-210 Issue 9.

 

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and/or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368 or email sales @ rheintech.com.

EU – RED Update

Posted on September 25th 2016 by

The Radio Equipment Directive (RED) 2014/53/EU becomes mandatory as of June 13, 2017. Products placed on the EU market as of that date must comply with the RED; the R&TTE Directive will no longer be valid.

When a manufacturer assesses compliance of radio equipment under the essential requirements of RED Articles 3.2 and 3.3 and harmonized standards are (1) applied only in part, (2) available but not applied, or (3) are not available, then it is mandatory for that manufacturer to use a Notified Body (NB), per RED Article 17.4.

The standard EN 301 893 will not be ready in time to be placed in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) as a harmonized standard for the RED, therefore manufacturers will be required to use a NB for the type of equipment falling under this standard, including Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) and 5 GHz high performance RLANs, until the document is finalized and becomes a harmonized standard, which may create a high demand for NB involvement in the meantime.

 
To find out more, please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. at sales @ rheintech.com or call us at 703.689. 0368.
 
Recently, Kenya’s Communications Authority issued a new regulation regarding the use of Short Range Devices (SRDs); SRDs operating in the permitted frequency bands are now exempt from Type Approval and may be freely imported and sold in Kenya. This includes, but is not limited to, SRDs operating at 13.56 MHz, 433-435 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands such as NFC tag/card readers, keyless car entry systems, wireless access points, wireless LAN modules, etc. Please note that these SRDs must comply with the maximum permitted output powers specified for each band which currently aligns with the EU regulations.
Please contact Rhein Tech directly if you have additional questions or require testing and certification assistance. 703.689.0368
 
 
Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
Does the FCC allow us to certify equipment that was initially verified? And what exactly are the differences between a verification, a certification, and a declaration of conformity (DoC)?
 
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

The FCC does not allow certification for a device that is subject to verification. The difference between a verification, certification and DoC are as follows:

  • Verification - 47CFR§2.902 is a procedure where the manufacturer makes measurements or takes the necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  Verification attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the manufacturer or importer which are identical as defined in 47CF§2.908 to the sample tested and found acceptable by the manufacturer.  Products subject to verification are typically intended for industrial and/or commercial use.
  • Certification - 47CFR§2.907 is an equipment authorization issued by, or on behalf of, the FCC based on representations and test data submitted by an applicant.
  • Declaration of Conformity - 47CFR§2.906 is a procedure where the responsible party as defined in 47CFR§2.909 makes measurements or takes other necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  The DoC attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are identical, as defined in 47CFR§2.908, to the sample tested and found acceptable by the responsible party.  Products subject to DoC are typically intended for consumer use. 

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech.com

On August 8, 2016, Russia’s State Committee on Radiofrequencies (GKRCH) published new guidelines for RFC (Radio Frequency Centre) conclusions. RFC conclusions are required for obtaining import licenses for radio devices such as RFID (866-868 MHz) SRDs, automotive radars (76-77 GHz), DECT devices (1880-1900 MHz) and more.

In the past, GKRCH reports issued by an accredited lab were accepted, and obtaining the RFC conclusion was a paperwork process only. The new guidelines imply that only test reports issued by Russia’s RFC will be accepted, and in-country testing is therefore required.

Please contact Rhein Tech if you have any questions or testing requirements. 703.689.0368

On August 26, 2016, modifications to the Mexican foreign trade rules and criteria were published in the Diario Oficial de la Federación (DOF), regarding all devices approved under the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 and previous NOM-121-SCT12009 standards pertaining to devices operating in the following bands: 2400-2483.5 MHz, 5725-5850 MHz and 902-928 MHz.

The new Mexican foreign trade requirements call for the mandatory presentation of Certificates of Conformity (NYCE certificates) issued under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 at Mexican Customs for all devices operating on the frequency bands specified above. Because of this, there is a risk that any Certificates of Conformity issued under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) will not be accepted by Customs.

In conflict, IFT technical provision IFT-008-2016 states that all Certificates obtained under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) would remain valid with no need to re-certify under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015. Because of this confusion, Mexican Secretaria de Economía (SE) issued a notification on August 29, 2016 stating that any Certificates of Conformity or IFT Approval Certificates issued under the previous NOM-121-SCT1 2009 standard must be accepted at Customs and fulfil the requirements stated in the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015.

Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a copy of the SE’s August 29, 2016 notification at Mexican Customs for all devices in order to prove compliance and ensure Customs delays are not incurred due to this confusion.

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and/or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368 or email sales @ rheintech.com.

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • IEC TS 62478:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 8/29/2016 - High voltage test techniques - Measurement of partial discharges by electromagnetic and acoustic methods
  • IEC 60601-2-40:2016, Ed. 2.0 - 8/18/2016 - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-40: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of electromyographs and evoked response equipment
  • IEC 61097-4:2012/AMD1:2016, Ed. 3.0 - 8/18/2016 - Amendment 1 - Global maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) - Part 4: Inmarsat-C ship earth station and Inmarsat enhanced group call (EGC) equipment - Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results
  • CISPR 35:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 8/16/2016 - Electromagnetic compatibility of multimedia equipment - Immunity requirements
  • IEC 62153-4-16:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 8/15/2016 - Metallic communication cable test methods - Part 4-16: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Extension of the frequency range to higher frequencies for transfer impedance and to lower frequencies for screening attenuation measurements using the triaxial set-up
  • IEC 61204-7:2016, Ed. 2.0 - 8/15/2016 - Low-voltage switch mode power supplies - Part 7: Safety requirements
  • IEC 60601-2-46:2016, Ed. 3.0 - 8/10/2016 - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-46: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of operating tables
  • IEC 61000-6-1:2016, Ed. 3.0 - 8/10/2016 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-1: Generic standards - Immunity standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments
  • IEC 61000-6-2:2016, Ed. 3.0 - 8/10/2016 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-2: Generic standards - Immunity standard for industrial environments
  • CISPR 14-1:2016, Ed. 6.0 - 8/10/2016 - Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus - Part 1: Emission
  • IEC 60204:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 8/9/2016 - Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - ALL PARTS
  • IEC 62226-3-1/AMD1:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 8/5/2016 - Amendment 1 - Exposure to electric or magnetic fields in the low and intermediate frequency range - Methods for calculating the current density and internal electric field induced in the human body - Part 3-1: Exposure to electric fields - Analytical and 2D numerical models
  • IEC 61204-3:2016, Ed. 3.0 - 8/5/2016 - Low-voltage switch mode power supplies - Part 3: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • IEC 61000-4-31:2016, Ed. 1.0 - 7/28/2016 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-31: Testing and measurement techniques - AC mains ports broadband conducted disturbance immunity test
  • IEC 62477-1:2012+AMD1:2016, Ed. 1.1 - 7/28/2016 - Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment - Part 1: General

See IEC for additional information.

Per Resolución 755, Chile’s Regulator, Subsecretaría de Telecomunicaciones (SUBTEL), has introduced additional requirements for supplementary test reports issued in cases where the test reports indicate greater output powers than allowed. In addition to showing compliance to the Chilean limits, manufacturers are encouraged to consider the following requirements in the supplementary test report:

  • For any devices operating in WLAN 5 GHz bands, the supplementary test report must clearly display that the 5500-5700 MHz band will be disabled.
  • The laboratory that tested to the Chilean limits must be clearly identified (name, address, country, contact telephone number) and the report must be issued on the appropriate laboratory letterhead and with their official logo.
  • The supplementary test report issued must clearly display the names and signatures of the persons responsible for carrying out the testing to Chilean limits.
  • If the supplementary test report is issued by a different laboratory than that which issued the main FCC/EU test reports, information must be provided in the supplementary report on the test conditions and support equipment used to carry out the testing to Chilean limits.

Please note that there is a risk that SUBTEL will reject all applications where the supplementary test report does not include all information outlined above, in addition to showing compliance to Chilean limits.

Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
Under what conditions does the FCC allow standard antenna connectors under Part 15.203?
 
We replied as follows:

Under 47CFR§15.203, the FCC allows the use of standard antenna connectors only when the device requires professional installation.

In all other cases, intentional radiators must be designed with a permanently attached antenna(s) or a unique antenna connector that ensures that only the antenna(s) certified and furnished by the grantee can be used. An example would be a wireless local area network, typically user-installed, and therefore requires a unique connector.

If professional installation is optional, the FCC does not allow the use of a standard antenna connector. When professional installation is required, the certification grant includes this condition.

An applicant must clearly demonstrate the requirement for professional installation by providing to the satisfaction of the FCC the following information about the device:

  1. intended use
  2. installation requirements
  3. marketing methods

The FCC has permitted standard connectors on intentional radiators in the following situations:

  • Point-to-point applications require a tower-mounted, directional antenna.  The device is advertised in special trade publications and/or demonstrated at targeted trade shows.  The applicant satisfied the 3 information requirements listed above to demonstrate the need for professional installation.  
  • Data and control signal transmitters located in oil fields; 
  • Transmitters mounted on trains and in train stations; 
  • Pole–mounted transmitters used by utility companies; 
  • Transmitters mounted on traffic signals for use by police and/or emergency vehicles.

 

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech.com

On August 2, 2016, the European Eurasian Commission approved the draft of Technical Regulation, “On Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic products.” This regulation establishes requirements for manufacturers of radio, electrical, and electronic products, prohibiting the content of certain hazardous substances. It has been developed in line with international practices including European Directive 2011/65/EU from June 8th, 2011. It also outlines conditions for confirmation of compliance, labeling, and operation in the Customs Union (CU) market. This new regulation will come into effect in November 2016 and will include the following products:

  • Domestic appliances;
  • Information technology equipment;
  • Telecommunications equipment;
  • Lighting equipment;
  • Electrical tools;
  • Leisure and sports equipment;
  • Vending machines.

This new regulation process is very similar to that of existing CU EMC and Safety Approval schemes:

  • Declaration scheme only will apply depending on equipment type. However, Certificates can still be issued if the equipment falls under the Certification scheme for other CU Technical Regulations.
  • A single Approval will be issued covering all applicable CU Regulations for a given device.
  • All products will still be required to be labeled with the correct CU conformity mark.
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